Mixed martial arts (MMA) has evolved significantly over the years, and with that, the rules and regulations that govern the sport have also undergone numerous changes. Today, MMA is played under the unified rules of MMA, which are established and enforced by the various athletic commissions across the world.
One of the significant aspects of the unified rules of MMA is the extensive list of fouls that competitors are not allowed to commit during a fight. Fouls are intentional or unintentional actions that are not permitted under the regulations, and violators can face considerable penalties. Here are some of the fouls that are prohibited under the unified rules of MMA.
1. Eye gouging: Eye gouging involves inserting fingers or other objects into an opponent's eyes with the intent to harm. This foul is highly dangerous and can cause severe damage, including blindness.
2. Groin strikes: Strikes to the groin area are not allowed, as it is a highly sensitive area that can cause significant discomfort and damage.
3. Biting: Biting is not only a foul in MMA, but it is also highly unsportsmanlike and can cause infection and injury.
4. Hair pulling: Fighters are not allowed to pull their opponent's hair during the fight, as it is considered a cheap tactic that can give an unfair advantage.
5. Throat strikes: Strikes to the throat and neck area are banned, as it can cause severe injury, including death.
6. Spine strikes: Strikes to the spine are not allowed in MMA, as it can cause critical damage to the spinal cord and can be career-ending for a fighter.
7. Intentionally throwing an opponent out of the ring cage: Fighters cannot intentionally throw their opponents out of the ring cage or use it to their advantage during the fight.
8. 12-6 Elbow Strikes: The 12-6 elbow strikes involve the fighter throwing the elbow straight down, which is not allowed in MMA.
9. Grasping the fence: Fighters cannot reach out and grab onto the fence for support or employ it to take down their opponent.
10. Attacking an opponent who is downed: Fighters cannot attack an opponent who is downed, as they are vulnerable and cannot defend themselves adequately.
In conclusion, the unified rules of MMA have been developed to ensure the safety of the fighters and provide a fair and level playing field. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in significant penalties, including disqualification and suspension. It is, therefore, essential that all fighters fully understand and abide by these rules to have a successful career in mixed martial arts.